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How Does Endoscopy Work

Endoscopy is usually done to observe an internal organ or tissue of your body in detail. To conduct the treatment, a device known as the endoscope is inserted in the body’s openings, such as the mouth or the anus. It can also be inserted through incisions. 

There are various kinds of endoscopy procedures to view and understand what is happening inside your body. A Lima endoscopy can help identify a wide range of gastrointestinal conditions or other diseases without the need for incisions. 

Upper endoscopy 

If you are experiencing problems in your stomach, food pipe (esophagus), or the duodenum, your doctor may suggest an upper GI endoscopy. In an upper endoscopy, a long and thin tube is inserted inside your mouth and throat and then pushed through the esophagus until it reaches your duodenum (the first part of your small intestine). This long tube contains a small video camera and light to capture video images of your body. 


A colonoscopy is conducted to check abnormalities in your large intestine and rectum. The doctor gives you sedatives before beginning the procedure to minimize the discomfort. An endoscope with an attached mini light and camera is inserted inside your rectum. The endoscope is long enough to reach the beginning point of your colon. The doctor pumps air or carbon dioxide for a better view of the colon lining. The camera sends images of your colon to an external monitor. Your doctor may even collect tissue samples from abnormal areas to view under a microscope and determine the problem. 

Capsule endoscopy 

Capsule endoscopy is slightly different from the other two procedures. The procedure begins with a doctor placing sensors on your abdomen and attaching a belt with a recording device to your waist. You will be given a capsule and a glass of water to swallow it. The capsule contains a tiny, wireless camera that captures pictures of the internal parts of your body as it passes through your small intestine. A specialist later looks at these photos and determines whether there are any abnormalities. 

Why would one need an endoscopy?

An endoscopy allows you to look inside your digestive tract, that is, esophagus, stomach, colon, and identify the causes of your digestive problems. If you are experiencing issues in your digestive tract that are not identifiable externally, your doctor will likely suggest an endoscopy. The procedure takes detailed photos and videos of your internal organs, which helps identify the cause of the problem. If you are experiencing the following, you may require endoscopy. 

  • You have unexplained abdominal pain
  • You are diagnosed with an abdominal condition
  • Changes in bowel such as diarrhea and constipation
  • Blood in the stool
  • Chronic heartburn 
  • Family history of similar diseases

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